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Occidental Course in 10 Lessons (lessons 1-2)

Page history last edited by Dave MacLeod 1 year, 8 months ago

Occidental Course in 10 Lessons (English translation)

 

Mag. phil. A.Z. Ramstedt, Helsinki

 

Occidental-Buró Berlin

 


 

 

1 Unesim letion

 

1.1 Texte

 

1.1.1 Un international congress

 

Noi have un grand international congress in li cité. Li nationes de Europa es representat per eminent cultural persones. Li centre del congress es in li palace del parlament. Elegant modern automobiles sta ante li portas e sur li stradas e plazzas. Li fassades es decorat per li national flaggas. Li flaggas del nordic landes have li cruce quam symbol. On vide delegationes de divers partes de Europa, de nord e sud, de ost e west. Un deputation visita li presidente del state in li grandiosi residentie contra li ópera. Special correspondentes fa observationes e scri articules por li redactiones de grand jurnales e telegrafa al burós de information.

 

In li grand sala del palace es li general convent. In li micri chambres li special comissiones e comités have secret conferenties. Nu li official programma comensa. Li

borgomastre del cité saluta li congressantes. On electe un presidente. Du secretarios scri li protocolles. Un delegat del central states presenta un proposition pri li organisation del international trafic per aeroplanes. Li orator parla con fascinant eloquentie e li auditoria escuta con interesse e applaude con entusiasme. Un polemic debatte comensa e it fini per un resolution in favor al propositor. On accepta li proposition e refusa li contrapropositiones.

 

In li vestibules e corridores sta gruppes de persones, famosi professores de universitás, rich directores de commercial firmas, energic secretarios de social e professional organisationes, e militares in gala-uniformes. Ili have portafolias con documentes e actes e discusse li actual situation e international aferes.

 

afere affair ili they

ante li portas

in front of the doors

letion lesson
cité city scri write
con with visita visit (verb)

contra

against 

fa  do 
grand  large  por  for 

discusse

discuss

sala  room 

escuta

listen

per  through, by 
cruce  cross  parla  talks 
quam  as  fascinant  fascinating 
on vide one sees eloquentie eloquence
parte part residentie residence
propositor  proposer  portafolies  briefcases 
famosi  famous  sta stand (verb)
fini finishes

unesim

first

 

 

 

1.1.2 Li macules in li sole

 

Un yun monaco sede in un turre e observa interessat li sole tra un telescope. Per hasard il fa un sensational observation: it existe macules in li sole. Il hasta al prior del monastere e exclama:

„Patre, qui nu posse esser sin macules, nam mem li sole have macules.“

Ma li prior responde tranquilmen:

„Tu erra, mi filio. Yo ha leet Aristóteles multvez, de comensa till fine, e necú il mentionapri macules in li sole. Tui ocules have macules, e ne li sole.“

 

monastere  monastery  tranquilmen tranquilly  multvez  many times 
exclama  exclaims  nam  because  tu erra  you err (=are wrong) 
patre  father  mem  even  mi filio  my son 
yo ha leet  I have read  mentiona  mentions  esser  be 
responde responds tui ocul your eye macul spot
turre tower yun monaco young monk sede sits
hasta rushes (lit. hastes) tra through hasard chance

 

 

1.1.3 Aforismes

 

Genie es un percent inspiration e ninant nin percent transpiration. (Edison.)

 

Li humore es un del elementes del genie, ma, si it dómina, solmen un surrogat de it; it es li compane del diminuent arte e destructe, anihila it in fine. (Goethe.)

 

Un bon comedie es plu durabil quam un systema de filosofie. (Hume.)

 

Grand artistes es li sol riches qui divide lor tot felicie con nos. (Pauly.)

 

ninant  ninety  compane companion diminuent  smaller, diminishing 
nin  nine  divide  divide, share  plu durabil  more durable 
lor  their  si  if  quam  than 
tot  entire, whole  dómina  dominates  destructe destroys 
felicie happiness, fortune sol sole, only nos us

 

1.2 Explanation

 

Reading the first lesson, we find that the majority of words in Occidental are already long familiar to us. That is, the vocabulary in Occidental is largely composed of already-existing international words, those that most countries in Europe (and of course countries in the Americas, in Australia, African countries with European languages, etc.) can already understand, and do not need to learn anew. These international words are, as we can see through these examples, used in an "unmutilated" form. But, - and this is what makes Occidental unique - in the language they are not foreign loanwords, but entirely regularly composed and derived from international root words, that have been chosen in such a way that all these completely international and natural words come into being by themselves. This has never been achieved before in existing planned world languages.

 

The word-building system in Occidental is in fact the same one that is found in international words, but as we will see later, can be easily learned and mastered with the help of a few rules.

 

But it's not just the vocabulary of Occidental that is natural and easy to learn; the grammar is also extremely easy thanks to its regularity.

 

1.2.1 Article

 

  • un congress - a congress
  • un lampe - a lamp
  • li congress - the congress
  • li lampe - the lamp

 

There is no grammatical gender in Occidental. Un is the indefinite article (a/an), and does not decline (change form). 

 

Li is the definite article (the), which also does not decline.

 

1.2.2 Singular and plural

 

  • genie - genius
  • genies - geniuses
  • congress - congress
  • congresses - congresses
  • lampe - lamp
  • lampes - lamps
  • suc - juice
  • sucs - juices
  • dictionnarium - dictionary
  • dictionnariums - dictionaries 

 

Plural is formed with an -s, -es after a consonant. Some consonant endings such as -g, -um, -c only add an -s for phonetic reasons.

 

1.2.3 Cases

 

de un congress - of a congress

a un congress - to a congress

del congress - of the congress

al congress - to the congress

 

For the definite article (the), a + li is abbreviated to al and de + il to del.

 

1.2.4 Adjectives

 

un modern automobil - a modern automobile

du modern automobiles - two modern automobiles

 

Adjectives in Occidental do not decline for gender, number or case.

 

1.2.5 Persons

 

While verbs in English conjugate depending on the person and number, they do not in Occidental.

 

yo have  I have  yo es  I am 
tu have  you have  tu es  you are 
il have  he has  il es  he is 
ella have  she has  essa es  she is 
it have  it has  it es  it es 
noi have  we have  noi es  we are 
vu have  you (plural) have  vu es  you are 
Vu have  you (polite) have  Vu es  you are 
ili have they have ili es they are
on have one has on es one is

 

 

 


 

 

 

2 Duesim letion

 

2.1 Texte

 

2.1.1 Un dialog

 

Un yun mann promena sur li trottuore de un strada e observa li vive. Il incontra un amico, quel saluta le e strax comensa questionar:

"Bon die, mi amico. Quo Vu fa nu?"

"Yo promena."

"Quo Vu ha fat hodie? Yo ne ha videt Vos ante nu."

"Yo ha laborat."

"Quo Vu fat yer?"

"Yo esset in hem e reposat."

"Quo Vu hat fat anteyer, si Vu esset yer tam fatigat?"

"Yo hat laborat li tot die e nocte."

"Quo Vu va far deman?"

"Yo va scrir un long articul por un jurnal, e yo espera, que yo va har scrit it till fine posdeman."

"Mey Vu haver success in Vor interprense! Ma it vell esser interessant saver, pri quo Vu va scrir e por qui Vu va scrir."

"Ci noi ne posse star plu. Noi deve ear."

"Lass nos visitar un café! Ta noi posse seder e trincar un glass de bir e parlar. O si Vu vole, café o té. Ples venir con me!"

"Mersí pro Vor invitation! Ma ples pardonar: pro quo Vu vole saver quo yo fa, e pri quo e por qui yo scri?"

"Pro que un yun mann deve saver omnicos."

 

Note: hodie as a combination of ho+die is stressed as hodíe, and omnicos as a combination of omni (all) + cose (thing) is stressed as omnicós.  They may be also written as hodíe and omnicós.

 

duesim  second  ne  not 
promena  strolls (cf. promenade)  ante nu  before now 
trottuor  sidewalk  laborar  work 
vive  life  yer  yesterday 
amico  friend  reposar  repose, rest 
le strax  him right away  tam  so 
bon die  good day  fatigar  tire 
quo  what  nocte  night 
questionar question, ask deman tomorrow
hodie today Vos you (object)
por for esperar hope
o or que that (as in "I hope that")
voler want posdeman the day after tomorrow
venir come mersí thanks
interprense endeavour pro due to
Vor your (polite form) saver know
pri quo about what pro quo why ("due to what")
ci here por qui for who(m)
plu more pro que because ("due to that")
dever must omnicos everything
ear go ta there

 

 

2.1.2 Li furtard e li prestro

 

Un furtard veni a un prestro por confesser su mult peccas e reciver pardon e absolution. Li prestro sede in su stul e escuta benevolent, durant que li furtard raconta le pri su trics.

"Quo tu ha fat, mi filio?" questiona li prestro. – In li sam moment li furtard vide, que li prestro porta un fin aurin horloge in un tasca de su gilete. Il prende it sin que li prestro remarca to.

"Yo furte," li furtard responde.

"Talmen tu ne deve dir. Ples dir, yo ha furtet!" – Nu li furtard ja ha deposit li horloge in su tasca.

"Yo ha furtet," il confirma.

"Yes, bon, mi filio. Nu tu deve retornar to quo tu ha furtet."

"Esque Vu ne vole haver it?"

"No, tu deve dar it al possessor."

"Li possessor ne vole haver it."

"In tal casu, ples departer in pace. Tui peccas es pardonat."

 

furtard  thief  sam  same 
prestro  priest  portar  carry 
confesser  confess  su  his, hers, its 
mult  much  horloge  watch (wristwatch) 
fin fine aurin golden
pecca  sin  tasca  pocket 
reciver  receive  gilete  vest 
prender  take  durant que  while 
furter  steal  racontar  tell 
remarcar to notice it talmen thus, in that way
dir say deposir put in / deposit
confirmar confirm retornar return
to it, that esque (asked to ask questions)
dar give possessor owner (possessor)
tal such a casu case
pace peace tui your (informal)

 

 

2.1.3 Anecdotes

 

Li persian legates postulat del Spartanes terra e aqua quam signe de subjugation. Li Spartanes jettat les in un profund bronn: "Ta vu have terra e aqua."

 

Zeno, li filosofo, dit a un querellant yun mann: "Li natura ha dat nos du oreles e un bocca, por que noi mey escutar mult e parlar poc."

 

"Si yo va venir a Laconia, yo va extinter omnicos e omnihom per foy e gladie," scrit Philippos, li rey de Macedonia, al Spartanes. "Si," respondet li Spartanes.

 

Un asiatic potentate esset questionat, quel esset su opinion pri li vin. Il respondet: "It es un fluide, quel es extraet de lingues de féminas e cordies de leones, pro que, quande yo ha trincat vin, yo posse parlar sin cessar e combatter mem li diábol."

 

postular 
demand 
terra e aqua 
earth and water 
jettar throw, toss 
profund
deep 
querellar 
quarrel 
orel 
ear 
bocca 
mouth 
por que 
in order to ("for that") 
poc 
little 
extinter 
extinguish 
omnihom 
everyone 
foy 
fire 
gladie 
sword 
quel 
which 
vin 
wine 
fluide 
fluid 
fémina woman cordie heart
cessar stop combatter combat
leon lion diábol devil

 

 

2.1.4 Proverbies

 

  • Mannes fa domes, ma féminas fa hemes.
  • Li infante es li patre del mann.
  • Plu vu studia, plu vu trova, que vu save necos.
  • Aure dat por sanitá, ne es dat in vanitá.
  • On ne posse seder sur du stules.
  • Errar es homan, pardonar divin.
  • Parlar es plu facil quam far.
  • Quande li fox predica tolerantie, ples gardar vor ganses.
  • Sur un rulant petre moss ne cresce.
  • Li morites governa li viventes.
  • Bon comensat es demí parat.
  • Que sempre es comensant, nequande es finient.
  • Mult homes es vocat, ma poc homes es electet.
  • Li sapon es li mesura de bon-esser e cultura del state.

 

proverbie 
proverb 
dom 
house 
hem 
home 
infante 
infant, child 
trovar 
find 
necos 
nothing 
aure 
gold 
sanitá 
health 
in vanitá 
in vain 
du 
two 
homan 
human 
divin 
divine 
facil 
easy 
quande 
when 
predicar 
preach 
gardar 
guard 
rular roll petre stone
crescer grow morir die
parat done sempre always
nequande never vocar call
hom person sapon soap

 

 

2.2 Explanations

 

2.2.1 Conjugation

 

Verbs in Occidental are all regular (except for the verb to be (esser) which is written es in the present). There is only one conjugation with four forms. Taking the verbal stem ama- (love) as as example we have the following four forms:

 

1. ama

2. amar

3. amant

4. amat

 

1. ama has the following uses:

 

a) Active present indicative (regular present form): yo ama = I love, il ama = he loves, vu ama = you love, etc.

b) Active present conjunctive: Il di que il ama = He says that he loves

c) Imperative: ama! = love! veni! = come!

 

2. amar is the infinitive. amar = to love, venir = to come, presser = to press.

 

3. amant is the active participle (English -ing). amant = loving, venient = coming, pressent = pressing

 

4. amat has the following uses:

 

a) Perfect participle (i.e. an adjective): amat = loved, venit = come, presset = pressed. Li amat patria = the (be)loved homeland.

b) Active indicative preterite (i.e. past tense): yo amat = I loved, tu amat = you loved, il amat = he loved, noi amat = we loved, ili amat su patria = they loved their homeland, etc.

 

The other forms are created with the help of auxiliary verbs.

 

Active:

 

Perfect 
yo ha amat 
I have loved 
Pluperfect 
yo hat amat 
I had loved 
Future I 
yo va amar 
I will love 
Future II 
yo va har amat 
I will have loved 
Optative 
yo mey amar 
I may love 
Conditional 
yo vell amar 
I would love 
Precative 
ples amar! 
please love! 
Hortative 
lass nos amar! 
let us love! 
Perfect infinitive har amat to have loved
Future infinitive va amar to will love
Perfect participle hant amat having loved
Future participle vant amar having to love

 

1. har resembles haver (to have) but is used for verb conjugation, while haver only refers to the verb to have. yo ha venit = I have come, il ha esset = he has been, noi hat curret = we had run, il hat cadet = he had fallen.

 

2. ples in ples amar adds politeness to the imperative, in the same way as the English please. ples venir! = please come! veni! = Come!

 

Passive

 

Present 
yo es amat 
I am loved 
Preterite 
yo esset amat 
I was loved 
Perfect 
yo ha esset amat 
I have been loved 
Pluperfect 
yo hat esset amat 
I had been loved 
Future I 
yo va esser amat 
I will be loved 
Optative
yo mey esser amat 
may I be loved 
Conditional 
yo vell esser amat 
I would be loved 
Present infinitive 
esser amat 
to be loved 
Perfect infinitive har esset amat having been loved
Present participle essent amat being loved

 

Other forms

 

1. Using the verb ear (to go): Li dom ea constructet = the house is being built. Using ear adds a sense of continuation (the construction is going on). Li libre eat printat = the book was being printed.

 

2. Using the verb star (to stand): Li dom sta constructet = the house is built. Using star adds a sense of finality (the house "stands" built). Li libre stat printat = the book was printed (the book's printing was all done).

 

3. Using se after a verb to make it passive or reflexive (to make it refer to itself). Li jurnal printa se rapidmen = the magazine is being quickly printed (the magazine "prints itself" quickly). Li cose explica se simplicmen = it's easy to understand ("the thing explains itself simply"). Yo nómina le Brian (I call him Brian), il nómina se Brian (his name is Brian = "he calls himself Brian"). Adding se to a verb may also give a sense similar to that in English: Yo procurat un libre = I got a book; Yo procurat me un libre = I got myself (me) a book.

 

Progressive form:

 

Present 
il es laborant 
he is working 
Preterite 
il esset laborant 
he was working 
Perfect 
il ha esset laborant 
he has been working 

 

The progressive form is used much less often than in English, and is used to stress the fact that the action is ongoing.

 

Il esset laborant quande yo intrat. = he was working when I entered.

 

It works as an adjective in the same way as in English:

 

It va esser un tre fatigant annu. = It will be a very tiring year (from fatigar, to tire)

 

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