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Occidental Course in 10 Lessons (lessons 5-6)

Page history last edited by Dave MacLeod 1 year, 5 months ago

Quinesim letion

 

5.1 Texte

 

5.1.1 Regress e progress

 

Etsi it sempre ne es litteralmen ver que it custa torrentes de sangue por pussar li homanité in moventie un millimetre adavan, it támen es ínnegabil e pruvat del experientie, que íncredibil mult eforties es necessi por far li homanité comprender un nov idé, benque it vell aportar it grand avantages. It existe tro mult homes, queles relate con índiferentie e indolentie a lu nov, o monstra admaxim un platonic benevolentie, e anc tales, queles combatte it con apert íntolerantie e mem acumula barrieres e impedimentes por desfacilisar li progress del cultur. In consequentie de lor ignorantie ili quasi time líber pensada e li aparentie de nov idés, e ili da preferentie solmen a to, quo sta in acordantie a lor propri restrictet saventies. Qual perseverantie de su pioneros ha postulat e va postular li movement por un lingue international, qual persistentie in li confidentie e esperantie al final victorie del nobil idé!

 

Omni progress es li resultate de un tenaci luctada inter du tendenties: un, quel crede in li permanentie de lu existent e insiste in li conservation de it, e un altri, quel crede in li existentie de alquicos plu bon. Fórsan con un cert exageration on nómina li unesimes frenatores e reactionarios, li duesimes fantasistes e utopistes. Li fundamental differentie inter li du partises es proprimen to, que li regressistes ne conosse li essentie del nov idés e pro to ne posse apreciar lor valore e importantie, durant que li progressistes es tro inclinat depreciar li existentie del conservativ leges del realitá e li potentie del temporari circumstanties. On vell posser nominar ti du partises realistes e idealistes, de to ne vell esser alquant ínjust, nam anc li realistes have su ideales, e anc li idealistes calcula con un realitá, quel posse fórsan esser plu ver quam li evident.

 

Un filosof unquande ha expresset li sam pensa per ti paroles: "Li munde sempre ha ridet pri to quo plu tard ha verificat se. In omni témpores existe homes qui pensa, e homes qui ride. Quande li témpore ha passat e un nov intrat – it ha sempre esset talmen, ne existe exceptiones – tande li munde ha regardat a retro e erectet monumentes a tis qui pensat, e ridet pri tis qui ridet."

 

etsi  although  líttere  letter 
custar  to cost  sangue  blood 
pussar  to push  mover  to move 
negar  to deny  pruvar  to prove 
effortie  effort  avantage  advantage 
tro mult  too much  relater  to relate 
índiferentie  indifference  indolentie  indolence 
admaxim  at most  monstrar  to show 
apert open acumular to accumulate
barrar to bar impedir to impede
quasi as if, quasi timer to fear
aparer to appear acordantie accordance
restricter to restrict perseverar to persevere
persister to persist confider to confide
victorie victory nobil noble
tenaci tenacious luctar to fight, struggle
insister to insist alquicos some thing
fórsan perhaps cert certain
frenar to brake partise party
essentie essence apreciar to appreciate
valore worth importantie importance
inclinar to incline, tend depreciar to depreciate
lege law potentie might, power
circumstantie circumstance alquant quite
ínjust unjust calcular to calculate
unquande once rider to laugh
verificar to verify intrar to enter
regardar to regard retro backwards, retro
erecter to erect, raise exception exception

 

 

5.1.2 Economisation

 

Si noi vole economisar moné, noi deve deposir it e ne spoliar it in omnidial micri expenses. Ma si noi vole economisar témpore, nor hores e minutes, noi deve utilisar les, e plu exclusivmen ili es usat por digni scopes, plu ili es transformat in un capitale de caractere, intelligentie e potentie. Noi cresce ne in aritmetic, ma in geometric progression, li flut de nov vive ne es solmen addit, ma multiplicat per lu antean. Un nov pensa, quel on excisela, ne es solmen juntet al anteyan pensas, ma transforma les e multiplica les, da nos nov vispunctus, de queles noi vide omni relationes e idés in un altri perspective.

 

Un passu ancor ad-supra li monte fa li horizonte plu vast in omni directiones.

 

(Channing.)

 

economisar  to economize, save  moné  money 
spoliar  to spoil, waste  plu...plu  the more...the more 
usar  to use  digni  dignified 
scope  goal, aim  flut  flood, flow 
anteyan former  exciselar  to chisel out (ciselar = to chisel)
junter  to join  passu  a step 
ancor  still, yet  ad-supra  up 
monte  mountain  vast  vast 

 

 

5.1.3 Li division de labor

 

Noi ha studiat mult e perfectionat mult, durant li ultim témpore, concernent li grand invention del civilisation: li division de labor. Solmen noi da it un fals nómine. It ne es, si noi expresse li veritá, li labor, quel es dividet, ma li homes: dividet in segmentes de homes, ruptet in micri fragmentes e pezzes de vive, talmen que li micri parte del intelligentie, quel resta in un hom, ne es suficent por far un pivote o un clove, ma exhauste se per far li fine de un pivote o li cap de un clove. E li grand cri, quel eleva se ex nor industrial cités, plu sonori quam lor sofflada de fornes – omnicos deriva de to, que noi fabrica omnicos in ili, except homes. Noi inpallida coton, e indura stal, e raffina sucre e modella ceramica, ma clarar, indurar, rafinar o modellar un singul vivent anim, tó nequande trova se in nor calculationes de profite.

 

(Ruskin)

 

Note: to is only written with an accent here to show emphasis ("...that is never found in our profit calculations").

 

ultim  final, recent  restar  to remain 
cap  head  derivar  to derive 
concerner  to concern  suficent  sufficient 
cri  a cry  inpallidar  to bleach (also pallidarin- strengthens the verb a bit as in to bleach in) 
fals  false  pivote fulcrum, hinge 
clove  nail  elevar  to elevate, raise 
coton  cotton  sonori sonorous 
indurar  to harden  rupter  to break, rupture 
anim soul forn oven
pezze piece fine end

 

 

5.1.4 Sofistica

 

Un yun greco hat aprendet de Protágoras li arte de sofistes contra payament de 50 mines ínmediatmen e ulterior 50 mines, quande il hat victet in su unesim processu. Proque il tardat payar li ultim parte, Protagoras comensat processu contra il. In ti die, in quel li judicament evenit, li du parties incontrat ante li deliberationes del judicos.

 

"It es plu bon, que tu paya me nu," dit li mastro, "nam si yo victe, tu va esser judicat a payar, e si tu victe, tande tu ya ha victet in unesim processu, e va dever payar me anc in ti casu."

 

"No, ples atender un poc," replicat li yun mann, "si tu victe, tande yo ne ha victet in mu unesim processu, e tande, comprensibilmen, yo ne deve payar te e si yo victe, tande li judicament ya va esser tal, que yo ne deve payar."

 

aprender  to learn  judicar  to judge 
comprensibil  understandable, natural (comprensibilmen = of course)  payar  to pay 
mine  mine (Ancient Greek currency)  tardar  to delay 
victer  to win  evenir  to happen 
judico  a judge  atender  to wait 
ínmediatmen  immediately  replicar  to reply 
mastro  master  comprender  to understand 

 

 

5.1.5 Li max perfect lingue

 

Un lingue, aprioric e logic, in quel chascun parol vell esser solmen un signe de un sol fix notion, un lingue sin images e metáfores e sin alcun associationes de idés, queles nequande vell lurar li pensa a altri notiones, un tal lingue vell esser perfectissim, pur principiarimen, pur teoricmen. Li paroles vell esser solmen instrumentes del pensa e necos plu.

 

Ma, it es un fact, noi nequande vell posser aprender un tal lingue. To es, si noi ne presuposi, que li vocabularium deve esser micrissim possibil. Ma tande it ne vell esser possibil expresser to, quo un civilisat nation, mem li micrissim popul, posse expresser per su lingue. Li homan memorie besona firm punctus por adherer, ma sur li calv, glacie-polit superficie del logic notiones it ne posse retener se. Just caus lor ínperfectitás e ruditás li natural lingues da nos plu secur adhesion por li memorie.

 

Li amore al metáfores es tam inradicat in nor mentes, que, etsi noi vell posser dispensar li metáfores, noi támen ne vell voler it. In omni lingues, nov e antiqui, on posse constatar li fenomen, que simplic, descolorat nómines es viceat per paroles, queles per su images e associationes de idés es quasi plu vivent, plu interessant. E noi posse profetisar, que tam long quam nor homanité ne ha perdit se ancor in pur ration, tam long quam sentiment e imagination ancor lude un rol, tam long quam homes ama li flores del verne ne solmen li sicc folies del autune – tam long un lingue aprioric, sin historie e sin metáfores ne va esser parlat sur ti ci globe.

 

chascun  each  rud  rude, rough 
perdir  to lose  fix  fixed, fast
sentir  to feel  amore  love 
luder  to play  besonar  to need 
radica  a root  rol  role 
lurar  to lure  adherer  to adhere 
mente  mind  sicc  dry 
pur  pure  calv  bald 
dispensar

to dispense,

rid oneself of

necos

nothing

(n.b. derived from ne+cose, thus accented as necós and often written with the accent)

glacie ice presupposir to presuppose
superficie surface vicear to replace

 

 

5.1.6 Proverbies

 

Honestie es li max bon politica.

Exemples es plu bon quam prescrites.

Laude fa bon homes plu bon, e mal homes plu mal.

Fortuna favora li braves.

Li oldes save, quo li yunes ne conosse, ma li yunes aprende, quo li oldes ne posse.

Li bravo merite li bella.

De lu sublim a lu comic es sovente solmen un passu.

Leges es quam li texturas del aranés; li micri moscas es captet, li grandes trapassa.

 

texter  to spin  mosca  a fly 
laude  praise  arané  spider 
fortuna  fortune  meriter  to merit 
capter  to catch  brav  brave 
trapassar  to pass through     

 

 

5.1.7 Li historie

 

Per li studia del historie noi percepte li intim conexion, quel existe inter lu present e lu passat. Li present moment es un transient cose, su radicas es in lu passat, su esperas in lu futuri. Si omnicos vell depender del subtil fil del fugient moment, quel ilumina e dura solmen durant un move del ocul, solmen por evanescer in li abyss de Nihil, tande omni vive vell significar solmen un exeada ad in li morte. Noi es tro inclinat regardar lu passat quam alquicos mort, ma it existe ye vivent evidentie in nor animas hodie. It opresse nos e stimula nos al action, it tirannisa nos e inspira nos a coses plu sublim.

 

percepter  to perceive  passat  past 
subtil  subtle  Nihil  Nothing 
conexion  connection  futuri  future (adjective) 
fil  thread  significar  to mean / signify 
transir  to transit, go by  fugir  to flee 
exeada  exit  evanescer  to evanesce 
morte  death  mort(i)  dead 
depender  to depend  abiss  abyss 

 

 

5.1.8 Aforismes

 

Li historie demonstra, que un energie e scop-conscient labor finalmen triumfa, ne pro que grand masses de homes auxilia realisar alcun cose, ma sovente pro que li iniciatores sin repose acte por li idé. (O. Fehlmann.)

Sovente it es plu desfacil viver por un idé quam morir por it. To es li diferentie inter heróes e martiros. (O. Wilde.)

Du levul gantes de fa un pare de gantes, du demí veritás ne fa un veritá. (Multatuli.)

 

scop-conscient  goal-conscious  auxiliar  to help 
iniciar  to initiate, start  gante  glove 
alcun  some  repose  repose 
finalmen  finally  cose  thing 
levul  left     

 

 

5.2 Explanations

 

Endings for types of words such as nouns, adjectives and the like are no more obligatory in Occidental than in natural languages. Vowels at the end of words are mainly justified by ease of pronunciation. Internationally-known words found in many languages are just as diverse in Occidental as in other languages. Some of them are: firma (company), boa, auto, conto (account), cangurú (kangaroo), marabú (a type of tree), tabú, colibrí (hummingbird), lampe, idé (idea), etc. Nouns, adjectives and particles can end in any vowel or consonant, as long as the word can be clearly spoken. A very common end vowel in Occidental is:

 

-e

 

which does not have any particular meaning, but is used for ease of pronunciation and to distinguish words from others. Nouns: teatre, centre, lampe (nouns). Adjectives: pie (pious), varie (varied). An adverb: sovente (often). The -e is also seen in plurals after a consonant before the -s: nation, nationes. It can also play a role in distinguishing a noun from an adjective: central (central), centrale (headquarters).  The most commen adjectival ending is:

 

-i

 

which is also used for pronounciation and distinguishing types of words:

 

vivaci = vivacious/lively, sagi = wise, omni = all, stormi = stormy (storm = storm), uniformi (the noun is uniform).

 

For nouns referring to living creatures, the ending

 

-o

 

is used to indicate the male gender, and

 

-a

 

the female, when necessary. (Genderless or unspecified: -e or no ending): un germano = a German man, un germana = a german woman, amico = friend, amica = female friend, cavallo = male horse (stallion), cavalla = female horse (mare),gallino = rooster, gallina = hen.

 

In many other words the -o ending is used for a specific item, while -a refers to something in a more collective sense, a location or time. rosiero = rose bush, rosiera = rose garden, barberia = barbershop, auditoria = auditorium, imperia = empire, etc.

 

Substantival (noun) adjectives may be used as nouns:

 

li rich e li povri = the rich and the poor

li riches e li povres = the rich and the poor (lit. the rich ones and the poor ones)

 

The same endings can be used on adjectives to indicate the gender:

 

li bello = the handsome man

li bella = the beautiful woman

li yunos = the young ones (boys)

li yunas = the young ones (girls)

 

The ending can also be used on the definite article itself if there is no particular noun in mind:

 

Masculine: lo bell = the handsome

Feminine: la bell = the beautiful

Neutral: lu bell = the beautiful

 

Note: lu is by far the most often used of the three above.

 

Finally, the ending -um can be used on an adjective to form a noun that expresses the general idea of something: novum = newness, bonum = goodness, caracteristicum = characteristicness.

 

5.2.2 Comparative forms

 

Comparative (more, less) and superlative (most, least) adjectives are formed in the following way:

 

li bell flore = the beautiful flower

li plu bell flore = the more beautiful flower

li max bell flore = the most beautiful flower (also maxim)

li min bell flore = the less beautiful flower (also minu)

li minim bell flore = the least beautiful flower

li bellissim flore = the very beautiful (gorgeous, etc.) flower

 

The above are the regular comparative forms. Other less regular forms exist due to their being part of already existing international words:

 

bon = good

melior = better (ameliorar, to improve)

optim = best (optimist)

mal = bad

pejor = worse (pejorativ)

pessim = worst (pessimist)

grand = large

major = larger (majorité)

maxim = largest (maximal)

micri = small

minor = smaller (minorité)

minim = smallest (minimal)

 

(note: minim included here for the sake of completeness even though it is part of the regular comparative forms)

 

5.2.3 Diminutive

 

The usual diminutive (making smaller) suffix is:

 

-ett

 

filietto = sonny, filietta = little daughter (filie = child)

brunetti = brunette (brun = brown), rosette = rosette (from rose, rose)

cigarette = cigarette (cigare = cigar)

pincette = pincette (pince = pincers)

foliettar = leaf through (folie = leaf)

volettar = flutter (volar = fly)

 

The same suffix is used to indicate small tools or instruments. Example: inflammette = match (from flamme, flame), tenette = grip, hilt (on a sword, from tener, to hold)

 

5.2.4 Pejorative

 

The usual suffix to make something pejorative is:

 

-ach

 

cavallacha = nag (cavall = horse)

populache = mob, the unwashed (popul = people)

criticachar = complain, bitch (criticar = to criticize)

imitachar = to ape (imitar = imitate)

 

Many other expressions can be pejorative on their own: simiar also means to ape (simie = monkey, ape).

 

5.2.5 -ar

 

Verbs are usually formed with the -ar suffix, the most commonly used for immediate derivation.

 

formar = to form (from form, form)

laborar = to work (from labor, work)

salar = to salt (from sale, salt)

motivar = to motivate (from motiv, motive)

coronar = to crown (from coron, crown)

scruvar = to screw (from scruv, screw)

brossar = to brush (from bross, brush)

lactar = to milk (from lacte, milk)

sanguar = to bleed (from sangue, blood)

dominar = to dominate (from dómino, master)

plenar = to fill (from plen, full)

exsiccar = to dry out (from sicc, dry)

abellar = to beautify (from bell, beautiful)

afacilar = to facilitate (from facil, easy)

 

As the last examples show, adjectives are frequently made into verbs along with a preposition in front.

 

The present participle can also be made into verbs:

 

sedentar = to sit (from sedent = sitting, thus to "make sit")

reviventar = to revive (from re vivent = living, thus to "re-make living")

calentar = to heat (caler = to feel warm, thus calent = being warm and calentar = to make warm)

 

 

 

-isar

 

"To make thus", "to make as", similar to English:

 

electrisar = to electrify (charge with electricity)

idealisar = to idealize (from ideal, ideal, which comes from idé, idea)

 

Note: electrisar is formed from a sort of hidden word (electr-) formed by removing the suffix -ic, which forms other words as well such as electron (the -on suffix will show up in the next chapter).

 

-isar can also be used, though more rarely, with nouns. They form words you already know:

 

canalisar = to canalize (from canale, canal)

tirannisar = to tyrannize (from tiranno, tyrant or bully)

terrorisar = to terrorize (from terrore, terror)

 

 

-ificar

 

"To make into something", "to bring towards" - similar to -isar above but slightly different.

 

electrificar = to electrify (note the difference between this and electrisar above. Electrisar means to make something electric, to charge it, while electrificar means to equip something with electricity or make electric. Flipping a switch would thus electrisa one's room, while equipping a village with power cables with electrifica it. Though such subtle differences are not too relevant in fluid conversation)

identificar = to identify (from identic, identical; identify has these two meanings in English as well: 1 to establish the identity of and 2 to make the same)

falsificar = to falsify (fals = false)

rectificar = to rectify (rect = right)

 

 

-ijar

 

To become. The word itself to become is devenir, and -ijar is an alternate way of expressing the idea.

 

maturijar = to mature, become mature (= devenir matur)

verdijar = to green, become green (= devenir verd)

oldijar = to become old, age (= devenir old)

 

 

-ear

 

This suffix forms verbs that indicate a swinging or repeating motion, or an intense state of being.

 

undear = to undulate, wave (from unde = a wave)

flammear = to flicker (from flamme = flame)

verdear = to green (greening fields, verdant forests, etc.)

 

 

5.2.7 Suffixes for verbal nouns

 

The verbal stem (present tense) can also be used as a verbal noun, which refers to a simple action.

 

yo pensa = I think; mi pensa = my thought

il batte = he hits; un batte = a hit

 

Note: for -ar and -ir verbs, this often gives the opportunity to make very subtle distinctions if one wishes, due to the general -e and vowelless ending for nouns. This is better explained with examples:

 

The word pensa refers to a thought, while pense refers to thought. Both are correct, and have a subtle difference: Li pensa venit a me = the thought came to me (pensa is preferred here as it refers to the action of thinking); penses paroles = thoughts and words. This is, again, a subtle distinction that one may use if wished or ignore at will, like the English words clothing and clothes, dinner and supper, precise and accurate, venom and poison, etc.)

 

We have already gone over the suffixes -ion and -ura in chapter 3. Here are some others:

 

 

-ada, -ida

 

-ar verbs use the -ada suffix, -er and -ir verbs the -ida suffix. It refers to the activity of a verb in its duration.

 

promenada = a walk, a stroll, a promenada (promenar = to stroll)

cannonada = cannonade (a repeated firing of cannons, from cannonar, to fire a cannon, from cannon = a cannon)

cavalcada = a cavalcade, riding (cavalcar = to ride)

currida = running (currer = to run)

 

 

-ntie

 

More or less equivalent to the English -nce (designates a condition in its duration), this is formed from the -nt participle plus -ie.

 

existentie = existence (exister = to exist)

índependentie = independence (depender = to depend)

confidentie = confidence (confider = to confide)

provenientie = provenance (provenir = originate)

tolerantie = tolerance (tolerar = to tolerate)

 

 

 

-ment

 

(This suffix requires some special attention, as their international use is more limited than the way they are used in English and in French which uses -ment with great frequency)

 

Forms nouns that signify a special, concrete action or its outcome or the means for it.

 

experiment = an experiment (experir = to experience, experientie = experience)

fundament = a foundation (fundar = to found, fundation refers to a founding)

impediment = an impediment (impedir = to impede, impedition refers to an impediment in the sense of impeding)

nutriment = nutrition (nutrir = to nourish, nutrition = nutrition in the sense of nourishing)

developament = development, a development (developar = to develop, developation = development in the sense of developing)

 

Some other examples Edgar de Wahl mentioned in Cosmoglotta:

 

abonnament (subscription) is not the act of subscribing but the legal status where one is subscribed

payament (payment) is the money that one pays

medicament (medicine) is the medicine itself, not the act of medication

ornament is the ornament itself

testament is the legal document

argument is the argument that one makes, not the act of arguing

 

 

-age

 

1) the activity of a verb, mainly industrial or professional, its expenses, etc.:

 

arbitrage = arbitration, refereeing

inballage = packing (inballar = to pack)

plantage = planting

passage = passage (passar = to pass)

rafinage = refining (rafinar = to refine)

postage = postage

doanage = customs (collecting tax; doane = tax)

 

 

2) collections with order, things made by:

 

tonnage = tonnage (tonne= ton)

foliage = foliage (folie = leaf)

boscage = boscage (bosco = bush)

plumage = plumage (plum = feather, pen)

 

 

 

 

6 Sixesim letion

 

 

6.1 Texte

 

6.1.1 Li festivitás ye li ocasion del ottcentenarie del cité capital

 

Ja ante ott horas in li matin li publica comensat barrar li stradas ductent al grand plazza de parade, talmen que li policistes havet mult a far por retener it in respectabil distantie. Legionarios e pumperos esset comandat quam auxiliatores por li policie.

 

Ja on posset vider un policist, forductent un laceron e un fripon, quel esset arrestat quam furtard. Un trincard esset remarcat de un policist, al gaudie de un galoppon de hotel. Un dormion presc restat sub un automobil.

 

In li sud-front del plazza esset constructet tribunes por li special invitat publica. On videt functionarios de divers institutiones, publicistes e jurnalistes e anc cinematistes. Ye nin horas e tri quart li central tribune comensat plenar se. Ultra li presidente e su marita, nascet princessa D. con su can Bolognes, li comissario de policie, li magistrate municipal, li borgomastro Ciennes on videt mult altri distint persones. In li diplomatic loge prendet plazze li ambassadores anglesi, francesi, german, chinesi, japanesi, con lor damas, inter ili li marita del ambassador italian, li conosset patronessa del societé de protectores de infantes. Inter li deputates del parlament on remarcat omni fractiones comensante del max revolutionari bolshevistes, til li conosset reactionario M., actionario e companion del chef del Grand Magazin Central, e anc quelc pastores del partise Christian.

 

Presc precis ye deci horas comensat li grand parade militari con elegant cavalcada del cavalleristes, inter queles excellet li lanseros. Li chasseros con lor coloristic vestes evocat general sensation. Poy defilat li artilleristes con lor modernissim mortatori apparates. Inter li infanteristes marchat max von li musqueteros, flancat per li jaloneros. Li officeros portat su órdenes, e on posset remarcar, que li pedones esset plu decorat quam li truppes de ingenieros.

 

Pos li militare defilat li brigade de pumperos e depoy sequet li scoleros de divers institutes con lor directores, preceptores e instructores. Pos ili marchat li professionales: tallieros, chapeleros, sapateros, barberos, carreteros, carpenteros, mureros, vitreros, ferreros etc. Li ovreros del fabricas ne prendet parte in ti parade, ma li mineros del vicin carbon-miniera esset representat per lor delegates in su original costumes.

 

Nu sequet li sportiv organisationes e on posset vider mult conosset championes del footballistes, boxeros, velocipedistes, canotistes etc. In fin sequet un corso de automobilistes e motoristes.

 

In li véspere in li vast sala municipal esset arrangeat un grand festa, u incontrat se li tot population per su eminent laboratores scientific, politic, artistic e social. Inter li

scientistes on posset reconnosser li professores del universitá, li romanist E., li germanist F., e li orientalist M. Omni scienties esset representat, on videt juristes, medicos, inter ili li oculist S., li internist A. e li dentist U. Anc conosset pictores quam li paisagist L., li portretist R. e li aquarellist e aquafortist K. participat al festa. Ta esset anc li sculptor C. con su marita, li famosi actressa Lola C. On vide li max different persones in amical conversation: ci un radical socialist fonde se sub li ardent ocules del excentric baronessa S., ta un prestro del metodistes parla con li millionario e bankero M. e li proprietario del grand fabrica de motores, lord Ch. Li charitabil comtessa T. sembla interessar se ye li activitá del conosset calvinistic missionario B., un alt barbon, quel in ti desbarbat témpore es quasi un anachronisme.

 

Li babillada cessat quande li trio: li pianisto Z., li cellisto Str. e li violinista Senioretta

Ilona M. intonat un arie del local compositor G. Solmen in tard nocte li festa trovat su fine, talmen que li reporteros havet mult a far scrir li rapportes al rect témpore, e li redactores e correctores esset occupat til li límite. Criticastros comprensibilmen ne esset content.

 

cité capital capital city  presc  almost 
chapel  hat  picter  to paint 
matin  morning  ultra  besides, beyond 
sapate  shoe  paisage  landscape 
ducter  to lead  marita  wife 
barbe  beard  sculpter  to sculpt 
retener  keep back  veste  clothing 
mur  wall  fonder  to melt 
flanc side vitre glass
arder to burn auxiliar to help
jalon a pole ferre iron
laceron a rogue, rascal pede foot
pedones pedestrians ovrero worker
fripon rascal, scoundrel mineros miners
alt high galoppon runner, errand-boy
depoy thereafter intern internal
babilar to chat dormion sleeper, sluggard
talliero tailor dente tooth
límite limit    

 

 

 

6.1.2 Un farme in li subtropic landes

 

 

Li farmero amabilmen monstrat nos su possessiones. Sur li corte noi videt a dextri un grand dom. To esset li gallinería, u esset anc anates, ganses e quelc altri avies. Detra ti voliera extendet se un pisciera quel servit solmen quam anguilliera. Trans li bassines esset visibil li grand cafeiera e in lontan un piniera. In li horizonte stat blu montes, u esset un rich marmoriera, un ardesiera e altri minieras. Li sómmites esset covrit de nive e glacieros. Del altri látere del corte esset li orangería con mult tropic plantes e fructieros, bananieros, palmes e exotic flores. Noi eat sur un bell planat via, de un látere de quel extendet se un vast herbiera con bellissim trifolie e anc mult bell flores de camp, queles injoyat li paisage. Ma li farmero totmen ne esset content con ti malherbe, quam

il nominat les. Il haltat e prendet ex li tasca un tabaciere e presentat nos quelc cigares: "Vu ne posse imaginar Vos," dit il, "quant me despita li insectes! vu vide ta li pomiera juntet a mi parc. It es presc vivid pro li mult vermes, con queles yo guerrea nu ja quelc annus. Anc li verdi pedicules de folies in mi adjacent pruniera, malgré omni precautiones, expande se in un horribil maniere."

 

"Esque Vu have forsan formícas?"

 

"O yes. Ci es pluri formicieras in li boscage vicin. Ili es tre laborosi insectes. Ples notar que just li formícas cultiva li pedicules, e yo posse solmen consiliar Vos tam rapid quam possibil exterminar omni formicieras. Ili es tre nociv animales in un fructiera."

 

"Advere! Nu yo va secuer Vor consilie. Ples regardar tra ti clariera, quel aperte nos li vide súper li mare. Ta Vu posse vider un cannoniere e du destructores, queles crucea in ti regiones."

 

"Quel es ti nave, quel sub segles veni al portu?"

 

"To es nor seglero, quel aporta nos salpetre por amelioration del terre. It veni del famos nitrieras in Chile."

 

Pos har fat un promenada tra li principal branches de su proprietás, li farmero invitat nos in su "garsoniera," quam il nominat su hem nu, proque su marita esset in un sanatoria. Quande noi hat sedentat nos in li comod apoyieres, sub li grand castaniero, un servitor aportat sur un tablette un chinesi teiere con tasses. Pos har trincat té e restaurat nos un poc, noi eat regardar li industrial institutiones, li spritería, li lavería, sapatería, carpentería e ferrería, u on fat omni ferrin ovres til li max fin ferreríes ornamental. Specialmen simpatic esset to, que on totmen ne videt forjettat ferrallia, quel talmen desgustant abunda in altri tal ovrerías. Li old forjero con su long albi barbe stat apu li incude avan li foyiere con ardent brase illuminant su energic facie, un image del old témpore.

 

 

6.2 Explanations

 

The following suffixes create nouns that refer to persons.

 

-er-

 

(From nouns) Similar to -er in English, refers to a person who is engaged in a type of work, or more rarely someone who coincidentally is engaged in a task.

 

molinero = miller (moline = a mill)

barbero = a barber (barbe = beard)

lavera = washwoman (lava = washing)

passagero = passenger (passage = passage)

 

 

-ist

 

(From nouns) The follower of an -ism, or someone engaged in some sort of artistic, ideal, scientific, military, technical or sport-related occupation:

 

librist = book lover (libre = book)

socialist = socialist (social = social)

Bonapartist = Bonapartist (follower of Napoleon Bonaparte)

Darwinist = Darwinist

oculist = eye doctor (ocul = eye)

cavallerist = cavalry trooper (cavallerie = cavalry)

machinist = machinist (machine = machine)

telegrafist = telegrafist (telegraf = telegraf)

automobilist = automobilist

 

 

-or

 

(formed from verbs) Explained in lesson 3, a simple doer of an action.  Note the following:

 

laborero = a professional worker (this is the -er- suffix). This is derived from the noun labor + ero

laborator = a worker in general (this is the -or suffix). This is derived from laborar --> labora + t + or

 

 

-ario

 

A person that is characterized through something exterior, such as a career:

 

millionario = millionaire (million = million)

missionario = missionary (mission = mission)

functionario = government worker (from function)

bibliotecario = librarian (biblioteca = library)

notario = notary (nota = enrollment, registration)

 

 

-on

 

A person characterized by an inner or natural character:

 

dormion = sluggard, sleepy head (dormir = to sleep)

grison = greybeard (gris = grey)

savagion = savage (savagi = wild)

spion = spy (spiar = to spy)

 

-on also serves as a suffix for objects, often implying a greater size:

 

cannon = cannon (canne = reed)

ballon = balloon (balle = ball)

galon = braid, military stripe (gala = gala, festival, pomp)

 

 

 

-ard

 

A person with a negative or criminal quality:

 

falsard = counterfeiter (fals = false)

dinamitard = terrorist who attacks with dynamite

mentiard = liar (mentir = to lie)

 

 

 

-astro

 

Someone unskilled at his or her profession:

 

medicastro = quack (medico = doctor)

politicastro = political hack, demagogue, politicaster (politico = politician)

poetastro = rhymester, versifier, poetaster (poete = poet)

 

 

-es-

 

Resident of a place or someone who originates from it (also as an adjective):

 

franceso = Frenchman (Francia = France)

francesa = Frenchwoman

francesi = French

borgeso = bourgeois, middle-class person (borgo = borough, town)

viennesa = woman from Vienna

 

 

-essa

 

Suffix for females indicating an office or dignified position:

 

comtessa = countess (comte = count)

princesse = princess (prince = prince)

imperatressa = empress (imperator = emperor)

actressa = actress (actor = actor)

 

Note that -or drops the o in this suffix.

 

 

 

6.2.2 Qualitative suffixes

 

The following suffixes form many of the nouns referring to the states and properties of other words.

 

-ie

 

An abstract state:

 

maladie = sickness (malad = sick)

elegantie = elegance (elegant = elegant)

 

Derivations from participles are particularly numerous:

 

existentie = existence (existent = existing). The ending -ntie was covered in the 5th lesson, and we can see that it is simply the present participle -nt plus -ie.

 

It may be used on nouns as well to make them abstract:

 

seniorie = lordship (senior = lord, sir)

amicie = friendship (amic = friend)

astronomie = astronomy (astronom = astronomer) and many other types of sciences

 

 

 

-tá

 

Quality or character, more or less equivalent to English -ty:

 

qualitá = quality (qual(i) = what a)

homanitá = humanity (homan = human (adjective), from hom = human, (noun))

amabilitá = amiability, kindness (amabil = amiable, kind)

membritá = membership (the status of being a member)

 

Words that refer to a group of people or things use -té instead of -:

 

homanité = humanity, as in the grouping of people as a whole. homanitá above refers to the character of being human (humanity in the sense of showing kindness and decency)

societé = society (socio = associate, member)

membrité = membership (all the members of something)

 

 

tá or té?

 

Besides the above, -té is much more limited in scope and any doubtful cases are given the -tá ending, such as universitá (university), which is neither the character of being a universe (universe + ) nor a collection of universes (universe + ). In the same way, society (societá) is not simply the state of being a socio, but it is also not a collection of them (a society is not simply a collection of associates) and thus it becomes societá. Rule of thumb: when in doubt, it's probably -tá.

 

 

-ore

 

1. (from verbs): a state of feeling, activity, temperature, etc.

 

amore = love (from amar, to love)

terrore = terror (from terrer = to frighten) 

calore = heat (caler = to be hot)

 

2. (from adjectives): size, value:

 

longore = length (long = long)

grandore = size (grand = large)

 

 

-esse

 

Special property or condition, most similar to English -ness. Examples:

 

altesse = highness (alt = high, altore = height, altitá = the quality of being high)

grandesse = greatness, magnitude (grand = large, grandore = size, granditá = being large)

yunesse = youth (yun = young, yunitá = youngness, yunité = the youth)

 

This is also the suffix used for bombastic titles such as your Highness (Vor Altesse).

 

 

6.2.3 Local e colectiv sufixes

 

-ia

 

is a frequent suffix for the names of places and countries:

 

Germania = Germany (german = german)

dominia = dominion (dómino = master)

abatia = abbey (abat = abbot)

auditoria = auditorium (auditor = hearer)

 

 

-atu

 

a legal, social, or public institution, state, or office (also location, time, and territory). Often corresponds to English -at or -iat:

 

viduatu = widowhood (vidua = widow)

celibatu = celibacy (celibo = bachelor, single man)

proletariatu = proletariat (proletario = a proletarian)

directoratu = directorship (director = director)

secretariatu = secretariat (secretario = secretary)

califatu = caliphate (calif = caliph)

episcopatu = episcopate (office of a bishop, from epíscop = bishop)

 

 

-eríe

 

An occupation and its activities. As -ería, it refers to the actual location. Both are actually formed from the -er- suffix (doer of an action), then -ie as above for the quality, or -ia for the location.

 

vitreríe = glasswork, glassware (vitre = glass, vitrero = glassworker)

vitrería = a glassworks (the place)

 

Beyond the occupation, it also refers to a character trait and its manifestations, same as in English -ery:

 

coquetteríe = coquetry (flirtation, from coquett = coquettish or flirtatious)

bigotteríe = bigotry (bigott = bigoted)

diaboleríe = devilry (diábol = devil)

 

 

-iera, -iere, -iero

 

These three are best learned together.

 

-iera: a vast location containing something

-iere: a vessel or container holding something

-iero: carrying something (forms trees as well - 'carriers' of their fruits)

 

-iere words:

cigariere = cigar case (cigar + iere)

tacabiere = a tobacco case (tabaco + iere)

candeliere = candle box (candel = candle)

 

-iero words:

pomiero = apple tree (pom = apple)

orangiero = orange tree (orange = orange)

glaciero = glacier (glacie = ice)

candeliero = candlestick

 

-iera words:

pisciera = fish pond (pisc = fish)

torfiera = peat bog (torf = peat)

formiciera = anthill (formíca = ant)

 

 

-uore

 

A place or device where something is done:

 

trottuor = sidewalk (trottar = trot, jog)

 

 

-ade

 

A consecutive, ordered series or certain amount of something:

 

colonnade = colonnade (colonne = column)

boccade = mouthful (bocca = mouth)

 

 

-allia

 

An unordered or pile of something:

 

antiquallia = old junk (antiqui = old)

canallia = pack of dogs (can(e) = dog)

 

 

-arium

 

A more scientific or specialized grouping of something.

 

dictionarium = dictionary (diction = a diction)

herbarium = herbarium (herbe = grass, herb)

planetarium = planetarium (planete = planet)

 

 

 

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